1. Chemical periodicity
Schrödinger equation for the H-atom. Radial distribution curves for 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 3d orbitals. Electronic configurations of multi-electron atoms.
Periodic table, group trends and periodic trends in physical properties. Classification of elements on the basis of electronic configuration. Modern IUPAC Periodic table. General characteristics of s, p, d and f block elements. Effective nuclear charges, screening effects, atomic radii, ionic radii, covalent radii. Ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy and electronegativity. Group trends and periodic trends in these properties in respect of s-, p- and d-block elements.
General trends of variation of electronic configuration, elemental forms, metallic nature, magnetic properties, catenation and catalytic properties, oxidation states, aqueous and redox chemistry in common oxidation states, properties and reactions of important compounds such as hydrides, halides, oxides, oxy-acids, complex chemistry in respect of s-block and p-block elements.
2. Chemical bonding and structure
Ionic bonding: Size effects, radius ratio rules and their limitations. Packing of ions in crystals, lattice energy, Born-Landé equation and its applications, Born-Haber cycle and its applications. Solvation energy, polarizing power and polarizability, ionic potential, Fajan's rules. Defects in solids.
Covalent bonding: Valence Bond Theory, Molecular Orbital Theory, hybridization. Concept of resonance, resonance energy, resonance structures.
Coordinate bonding: Werner theory of coordination compounds, double salts and complex salts. Ambidentate and polydentate ligands, chelate complexes. IUPAC nomenclature of coordination compounds. Coordination numbers, Geometrical isomerism. Stereoisomerism in square planar and octahedral complexes.
3. Acids and bases
Chemical and ionic equilibrium. Strengths of acids and bases. Ionization of weak acids and bases in aqueous solutions, application of Ostwald's dilution law, ionization constants, ionic product of water, pH-scale, effect of temperature on pH, buffer solutions and their pH values, buffer action & buffer capacity; different types of buffers and Henderson's equation.
4. Theoretical basis of quantitative inorganic analysis
Volumetric Analysis: Equivalent weights, different types of solutions, normal and molar solutions. Primary and secondary standard substances.
General principles of different types of titrations: i) acid-base, ii) redox, iii) complexometric, iv) Precipitation. Types of indicators - i) acid-base, ii) redox iii) metal-ion indicators.
5. Kinetic theory and the gaseous state
Kinetic theory of gases, average kinetic energy of translation, Boltzmann constant and absolute scale of temperature. Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of speeds. Calculations of average, root mean square and most probable velocities.
Collision diameter; collision number and mean free path; frequency of binary collisions; wall collision and rate of effusion.
6. Chemical thermodynamics and chemical equilibrium
First law and its applications to chemical problems. Thermodynamic functions. Total differentials and state functions. Free expansion, Joule Thomson coefficient and inversion temperature. Hess’ law.
Applications of Second law of thermodynamics. Gibbs function (G) and Helmholtz function (A), Gibbs-Helmholtz equation, criteria for thermodynamic equilibrium and spontaneity of chemical processes.
7. Solutions of non-electrolytes
Colligative properties of solutions, Raoult's Law, relative lowering of vapour pressure, osmosis and osmotic pressure; elevation of boiling point and depression of freezing point of solvents. Solubility of gases in liquids and solid solutions.
Cell constant, specific conductance and molar conductance. Kohlrausch's law of independent migration of ions, ion conductance and ionic mobility. Equivalent and molar conductance at infinite dilution. Debye-Hückel theory. Application of conductance measurements. Conductometric titrations. Determination of transport number by moving boundary method.
9. Basic organic chemistry
Delocalized chemical bond, resonance, conjugation, hyperconjugation, hybridisation, orbital pictures of bonding sp3, sp2, sp: C-C, C-N and C-O system), bond polarization and bond polarizability. Reactive intermediates: General methods of formation, relative stability and reactivity of carbocations, carbanions and free radicals.
Configuration and chirality (simple treatment of elements of symmetry), optical isomerism of compounds containing two to three stereogenic centres, R,S nomenclature, geometrical isomerism in compounds containing two C=C double bonds (E,Z naming), and simple cyclic systems, Newman projection (ethane and substituted ethane).
11. Types of organic reactions
Aliphatic substitution reactions: SN1, SN2 mechanisms, stereochemistry, relative reactivity in aliphatic substitutions. Effect of substrate structure, attacking nucleophile, leaving group and reaction medium and competitive reactions.
Elimination reactions: E1, E2, mechanisms, stereochemistry, relative reactivity in aliphatic eliminations. Effect of substrate structure, attacking base, leaving group, reaction medium and competitive reactions, orientation of the double bond, Saytzeff and Hoffman rules.
Addition reactions: Electrophilic, nucleophilic and radical addition reactions at carbon-carbon double bonds.
Electrophilic and nucleophilic aromatic substitution: Electrophilic (halogenation, sulphonation, nitration, Friedal-Crafts alkylation and acylation), nucleophilic (simple SNAr, SN1 and aryne reactions).
12. Molecular Rearrangements
Acid induced rearrangement and Wagner-Meerwein rearrangements. Neighbouring group participation.