Section A: Mineralogy and Geochemistry & Isotope Geology
External symmetry of crystals: Symmetry Elements, methods of projection, derivation of 32 classes, Hermaun Muguin notation. Internal symmetry of crystals: Derivation of 230 space groups, diffraction of crystals by X-rays, Braggs’ law. Principles of optical mineralogy : Optical mineralogy, polarized light, behaviour of isotropic and anisotropic minerals in polarized light, refractive index, double refraction, birefringence, sign of elongation, interference figures, 2V, dispersion in minerals. Optic sign, pleochroic scheme and determination of fast and slow vibrations and accessory plates. Introduction to mineralogy: Definition and classification of minerals. Structural and chemical principles of crystals / minerals, chemical bonds, ionic radii, coordination number (CN) and polyhedron. Structure, chemistry, physical and optical characters and paragenesis of mineral groups: Olivine, pyroxene, amphibole, mica and spinel groups; Feldspar, quartz, feldspathoid, aluminum silicate, epidote and garnet groups. Accessory minerals: Apatite, calcite, corundum, scapolite, sphene and zircon. Earth mineralogy: Average mineralogical composition of crust and mantle, mineral transformations in the mantle with depth.
Earth in relation to the solar system and universe, cosmic abundance of elements. Composition of the planets and meteorites. Structure and composition of earth and distribution of elements. Trace elements and REE and their importance in fractional crystallization during magmatic / partial melting. Elementary crystal chemistry and thermodynamics. Introduction to isotope geochemistry. Geochronology and age of the Earth: Law of Radioactivity; Principles of isotopic dating, Decay schemes and Derivation of equation of age. Rb/Sr, U- Th –Pb methods of dating the rocks. Age of the Earth. Geochemistry and principles of evolution of hydrosphere, biosphere and atmosphere. Geochemical cycle and principles of geochemical prospecting.
Section B: Igneous Petrology
Origin of magmas: Mantle, onset of partial melting of mantle, processes of partial melting in mantle, mantle-magmas in relation to degree and depth-level of partial melting. Phase equilibrium in igneous systems: Binary and ternary systems. Bowen's reaction principle: Reaction series and its application to petrogenesis. Magmatic evolution and differentiation: Fractional crystallization, gravitational differentiation, gas streaming, liquid immiscibility and assimilation. Structures and textures: Definition, description, rock examples and genetic implications of common structures and textures of igneous rocks. Classification of igneous rocks: Mode, CIPW norm, IUGS and other standard classifications; Magmatism and tectonics: Inter-relationship between tectonic settings and igneous rock suites. Igneous rock suites: Form, structure, texture, modal mineralogy, petrogenesis and distribution of Ultramafic rocks: Dunite-peridotite-pyroxenite suite; kimberlites, lamprophyres, lamproites, komatiites; Basic rocks: Gabbro-norite-anorthosite-troctolite suite, Dolerites; Basalts and related rocks; Intermediate rocks: Diorite-monzonite-syenite suite; Andesites and related rocks; Acidic rocks: Granite-syenite-granodiorite-tonalite suite; Rhyolites and related rocks; Alkaline rocks: Shonkinite, ijolite, urtite, melteigite, malignite, alkali gabbros, alkali basalt, alkali granite, alkali syenite, nepheline syenite and phonolite; Carbonatites; Ophiolite suite.
Petrogenetic provinces: Continental areas: Volcanic-Flood basalts-Tholeiites (Deccan Trap, Columbia River basalts); Layered gabbroic intrusions: The Bushveld complex, Skaergaard intrusion, Still water complex. Plutonic: Carbonatites and alkaline rock complexes of India; Oceanic Rift valleys: MORB- Tholeiites-Ophiolites.
Section C: Metamorphic Petrology & Processes
Concepts and Theory: Types of Metamorphism and their controlling factors; Common minerals of metamorphic rocks; Field observations, petrographic classification of common metamorphic rocks; Metamorphic facies and facies series. Effects of Metamorphism : Phase diagrams and graphic representation of mineral assemblages; Prograde and retrograde metamorphism, Matasomatism; Deformation textures and textures related to recrystallization; Metamorphic reactions, elemental exchange and Pressure – Temperature conditions of Isograds; Mineral assemblages equilibrium/ reaction textures and geo-thermo barometry. Experimental and thermodynamic appraisal of metamorphic reactions; Role of fluids in metamorphic reactions. Metamorphism types and products: Regional and thermal metamorphism of pelitic rocks. Regional and thermal metamorphism of basic and ultrabasic rocks; Regional and thermal metamorphism of impure, silicious carbonate rocks; Metamorphism of Granitoides, Charnockites and Migmatites. Metamorphism in space and time: Plate tectonics and metamorphic processes; Paired metamorphic belts, Archaean and Proterozoic terrains; Extraterrestrial Metamorphism (Impact and Shock Metamorphism); polymetamorphism
Section D: Sedimentology
Provenance and diagenesis of sediments. Sedimentary textures. Framework, matrix and cement of terrigenous sediments. Definition, measurement and interpretation of grain size. Elements of hydraulics. Primary structures, palaeocurrent analysis. Biogenic and chemical sedimentary structures. Sedimentary environment and facies. Facies modeling for marine, non-marine and mixed sediments. Tectonics and sedimentation. Classification and definition of sedimentary basins. Sedimentary basins of India. Cyclic sediments. Seismic and sequence stratigraphy. Purpose and scope of basin analysis. Stratum contours and isopach maps.
Section E: Environmental Geology and Natural Hazards
Fundamental concepts of Environmental Geology - it’s scope, objectives, and aims. Earth’s thermal environment and Climates. Global warming. Green house effect. Ozone depletion–Ice sheets and fluctuation in sea levels. Concepts of ecosystem. Earth’s major ecosystems terrestrial and aquatic. Meteorology as environmental science. Air Pollution, sources of pollution, pollution due to dust and waste disposal. National and International standards. Environmental health hazards. Mining, opencast, underground, disposal of industrial and radio-active waste, dumping stacking, rehandling, management, mineral processing, tailing ponds, acid mine drainage, siltation, case studies. Mining below water table, mine water discharges, regional effects on water regime. Noise levels- national standards, mining machinery, ill effects. Air sampling techniques – respirable dust samplers, high volume air samplers, personal sampling pumps, weather monitoring equipments, automatic recorders. Elements of Environmental Impact Assessment – impacts, primary, secondary, prediction, assessment, base-line data generation, physical, biological, cultural, socioeconomic aspects. Carrying capacity based developmental planning – Assimilative capacity – supportive capacity – Resource based planning – Institutional strategies. Sustainable Developmental Planning - Applications of GIS in Environmental Management.Environmental Legislations in India.
Concepts and principles: Natural hazards – preventive/ precautionary measures – floods, landslides, earthquakes, river and coastal erosion. Distribution, magnitude and intensity of earthquakes. Neotectonics and seismic hazard assessment. preparation of seismic hazard maps. Impact of seismic hazards on long and short term environmental conditions. Mechanism of landslides, causes of major floods, cyclones and storms. Deforestation and land degradation. Coastal erosion, its causes and control of Geological hazards and crisis management.