Section A: Indian mineral deposits and mineral economics
Occurrence and distribution in India of metalliferous deposits - base metals, iron, manganese, aluminium, chromium, nickel, gold, silver, molybdenum. Indian deposits of non-metals – Diamond, mica, asbestos, barytes, gypsum, graphite, apatite and beryl. Gemstones, refractory minerals, abrasives and minerals used in glass, fertilizer, paint, ceramic and cement industries. Building stones. Phosphorite deposits. Placer deposits, rare earth minerals. Strategic, critical and essential minerals. India’s status in mineral production vis a vis world scenario, Changing patterns of mineral consumption. UNFC classification, National Mineral Policy. Mineral Concession Rules. Marine mineral resources and Laws of Sea.
Section B: Ore genesis and Geophysics
Ore deposits and ore minerals. Magmatic processes of mineralization. Porphyry, skarn and hydrothermal mineralization. Fluid inclusion studies. Mineralisation associated with – (i) ultramafic, mafic and acidic rocks (ii) greenstone belts (iii) komatiites, anorthosites and kimberlites and (iv) submarine volcanism. Magma related mineralization through geological time. Stratiform and stratabound ores. Ores and metamorphism – cause and effect relations. Metallogeny and mineral belts.
Interrelationship between geology and geophysics - Role of geological and geophysical data in explaining geodynamical features of the earth. General and Exploration geophysics - Different types of geophysical methods; Gravity, magnetic, Electrical, Seismic - their principles and applications. Geophysical field operations - Different types of surveys, grid and route surveys, profiling and sounding techniques, scales of survey, presentation of geophysical data. Application of Geophysical methods - Regional geophysics, ore geophysics, engineering geophysics. Geophysical anomalies : correction to measured quantities, geophysical, anomaly, regional and residual (local) anomalies, factors controlling anomaly, depth of exploration. Integrated geophysical methods - Ambiguities in geophysical interpretation, Planning and execution of geophysical surveys.
Section C: Mineral exploration
Resource, reserve definitions; mineral resource in industries - historical perspective and present. A brief overview of classification of mineral deposits with respect to processes of formation in relation to exploration strategies. Principles of mineral prospecting and exploration - conceptualization, methodology and stages; sampling, subsurface sampling including pitting, trenching and drilling, core and non-core drilling, planning of bore holes and location of bore holes on ground. Core logging, geochemical exploration- nature of samples anomaly, strength of anomaly and controlling factors, coefficient of aqueous migration. Principles of reverse estimation, density and bulk density, factors affecting reliability of reserve estimation, reserve estimation based on geometrical models (square, rectangular, triangular and polygon blocks ) regular and irregular grid patterns, statistics and error estimation. Application of Geophysical techniques, Geomorphological and remote sensing techniques and Geobotanical and geochemical methods. Application of geostatistical techniques in Mineral Exploration.
Section D: Geology of fuels
Coal and its properties: Different varieties and ranks of coal. Origin of coal. Coalification process and its causes. Lithotypes, microlithotypes and macerals: their physical, chemical and optical properties. Maceral analysis of coal: Mineral and organic matter in coal. Petrographical methods and tools of examination. Fundamentals of coal petrology, concept of coal maturity, peat, lignite, bituminous and anthracite coal. Application of coal geology in hydrocarbon exploration. Applications of coal petrography. Proximate and ultimate analyses. Indian coal & lignite deposits. Industrial evaluation of coal characteristics with reference to coal classification. Geology and coal petrography of different coalfields of India. Uses of coal for various industries e.g. carbonization, liquefaction, power generation, gasification and coal-bed methane production.
Origin, migration and entrapment of natural hydrocarbons. Characters of source and reservoir rocks. Structural, stratigraphic and mixed traps. Techniques of exploration. Geographical and geological distributions of onshore and offshore petroliferous basins of India.
Mineralogy and geochemistry of radioactive minerals. Instrumental techniques of detection and measurement of radioactivity. Radioactive methods for prospecting and assaying of mineral deposits. Distribution of radioactive minerals in India. Radioactive methods in petroleum exploration – well logging techniques. Nuclear waste disposal – geological constraints.
Section E: Engineering Geology
Geological studies and evaluation in planning, design and construction of major civil structures. Elementary concepts of rock mechanics and soil mechanics. Site investigation, characterization and problems related to civil engineering projects: geological and geotechnical investigations for dams, reservoirs and spillways, tunnels, underground caverns, bridges, highways, shorelines. Problems of groundwater in engineering projects. Coastal geotechniques. Environmental considerations related to civil engineering projects. Resource evaluation of construction materials. Geological hazards (landslides and earthquakes), their significance, causes, preparedness and mitigation. Recent trends in geotechnical engineering. Geotechnical case studies of major projects in India.