## PART-A: 100 Marks

### a. Geophysical Potential Fields (Gravity and Magnetic)

Geophysical potential fields, Inverse square law of field, Principles of Gravity and Magnetic methods, Geoid, Spheroid, Nature of gravity and its variation, Properties of Newtonian potential, Laplace's and Poisons equations, Green's theorem, Gauss law, Concept of Bouguer gravity anomaly, Rock densities, factors controlling rock densities, determination of density, theory of isostasy, Earth's main magnetic field, origin, temporal variations, Geomagnetic elements, Columb's law of magnetic force and fields, intensity of magnetization and induction, magnetic potential and its relation to field, units of measurement, origin of magnetic anomalies, interrelationship between different components of anomalies, Poison's relation, Magnetic susceptibility, factors controlling susceptibility (Bulk chemistry, cooling history, metamorphism), magnetic minerals, rock classification, Natural and remnant magnetism, Asiatic and Spinner magnetometers, demagnetization effects. Principles of Gravity and Magnetic instruments, Plan of conducting GM surveys, reduction of gravity and magnetic data, Airborne magnetic surveys and magnetic gradient surveys, Shipborne surveys, Gravity and Magnetic data reduction, IGSN Gravity bases, International Gravity formula, IGRF corrections for magnetic field. Separation of regional and residual anomalies, ambiguity in interpretation, Application of GM surveys for Geodynamic studies, Mineral Exploration, Environmental studies…Data processing and interpretation of anomalies, modeling of anomalies.

### b. Electrical and Electromagnetic methods:

Electrical properties of rocks and their measurement, concepts and assumptions of horizontally stratified earth, anisotropy and its effects on electrical fields, the geo electric section and geological section, D.C Resistivity method, fundamental laws, concept on natural electric field, electrode configuration, choice of methods, Profiling, Vertical Electrical Sounding.SP Method, Origin of SP, application of SP surveys, Origin of Induced Polarization, Membrane and Electrode potential, time and frequency domains of measurement, IP, chargeability, percent frequency effect and metal factor, dipole theory of IP, Application of IP surveys for mineral exploration (disseminated sulphides).

Electromagnetic methods/ Telluric/Magneto Telluric methods, Passive and Active source methods, Maxwell's equations, electromagnetic potential and wave equations, boundary conditions, long wave length approximation, depth of penetration, amplitude and phase relations, real and imaginary components, Principles of EM prospecting, various EM methods, Dip angle method, Turam method, moving source-receiver methods-horizontal loop (Slingram) method, AFMAG, and VLF methods, Airborne EM systems - rotary field method, INPUT method, EM Profiling and sounding, Interpretation of EM anomalies, Principles of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Origin and characteristics of MT fields, Instrumentation, Field methods and interpretation of MT data and applications.

### c. Seismic Prospecting:

Basic principles of seismic methods, Fermat's principle, Senell's law, Reflection, refraction and diffraction from multilayered medium, Reflection and transmission coefficients, propagation model for exploration seismology, Seismic resolution, Seismic absorption and anisotropy, Seismic data acquisition, sources of energy, Geophones, geometry of arrays, Instrumentation, digital recording Seismic Surveys: Principle for multilayer refraction Travel time curves, corrections, Interpretation of data, Reflection principles, CDP, data processing, corrections, NMO correction, Interpretation of data, Fundamental of VSP method, Seismic Tomography. Principles of High Resolution Seismic (HRS) for coal exploration

### d. Borehole Geophysics (Principles of Well logging):

Objectives of well logging, fundamental concepts in borehole geophysics, borehole conditions, properties of reservoir rock formations, formation parameters and their relationships-formation factor, porosity, permeability, formation water resistivity, water saturation, irreducible water saturation, hydrocarbon saturation, residual hydrocarbon saturation; Arhcie's and Humble's equations; principles, instrumentations, operational procedures and interpretations of various geophysical logs, SP log, resistivity and micro resistivity logs, nuclear/radioactive logs, acoustic impedance and propagation logs, temperature log, caliper log and directional logs; production logging; clean sand and shaly sand interpretations; overlay and cross-plots of well-log data, determination of formation lithology, sub-surface correlation and mapping, delineation of fractures; application of well-logging in hydrocarbon, groundwater, coal, metallic and non-metallic mineral exploration.

## PART-B: 100 Marks

### a. Atomic and Molecular Physics and Properties and Characterization of materials:

Quantum states of an electron in an atom; Electron spin; Stern-Gerlach experiment; Spectrum of Hydrogen, helium and alkali atoms; Relativistic corrections for energy levels of hydrogen; Hyperfine structure and isotopic shift; width of spectral lines; LS & JJ coupling; Zeeman, Paschen Back & Stark effect; X-ray spectroscopy; Electron spin resonance, Nuclear magnetic resonance, chemical shift; Rotational, vibrational, electronic, and Raman spectra of diatomic molecules; Frank - Condon principle and selection rules; Spontaneous and stimulated emission, Einstein A & B coefficients; Lasers, optical pumping, population inversion, rate equation; Modes of resonators and coherence length. Thermal properties, optical properties, fundamentals of transmission electron microscopy, study of crystal structure using TEM, study of microstructure using SEM. Resonance methods- Spin and an applied field- the nature of spinning particles, interaction between spin and a magnetic field, population on energy levels, the Larmor precession, relaxation times - spin-spin relation, spin-lattice relaxation, Electron spin resonance- Introduction, g factor, experimental methods, Nuclear Magnetic resonance- equations of motion, line width motional narrowing, hyperfine splitting, Nuclear Gamma Resonance: Principles of Mossbauer Spectroscopy, Line width, Resonance absorption, Mossbauer Spectrometer, Isomer Shift, Quadrupole splitting, magnetic field effects, applications.

### b. Nuclear and Particle Physics:

Basic nuclear properties: size, shape, charge distribution, spin and parity; Binding energy, semi-empirical mass formula; Liquid drop model; Fission and fusion; Nature of the nuclear force, form of nucleon-nucleon potential; Charge-independence and charge-symmetry of nuclear forces; Isospin; Deuteron problem; Evidence of shell structure, single- particle shell model, its validity and limitations; Rotational spectra; Elementary ideas of alpha, beta and gamma decays and their selection rules; Nuclear reactions, reaction mechanisms, compound nuclei and direct reactions; Classification of fundamental forces; Elementary particles (quarks, baryons, mesons, leptons); Spin and parity assignments, isospin, strangeness; Gell-Mann-Nishijima formula; C, P, and T invariance and applications of symmetry arguments to particle reactions, parity nonconservation in weak interaction; Relativistic kinematics.

Crystalline and amorphous structure of matter; Different crystal systems, space groups; methods of determination of crystal structure; X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopes; Band theory of solids-conductors, insulators and semiconductors; Thermal properties of solids, specific heat, Debye theory; Magnetism: dia, para and ferromagnetism; elements of superconductivity; Meissner effect, Josephson junctions and applications; elementary ideas about high temperature superconductivity.

### c. Electromagnetic Theory:

Electrostatics: Gauss' Law and its applications; Laplace and Poisson equations, boundary value problems; Magnetostatics: Biot-Savart law, Ampere's theorem, electromagnetic induction; Maxwell's equations in free space and linear isotropic media; boundary conditions on fields at interfaces; Scalar and vector potentials; Gauge invariance; Electromagnetic waves in free space, dielectrics, and conductors; Reflection and refraction, polarization, Fresnel's Law, interference, coherence, and diffraction; Dispersion relations in plasma; Lorentz invariance of Maxwell's equations; Transmission lines and wave guides; Dynamics of charged particles in static and uniform electromagnetic fields; Radiation from moving charges, dipoles and retarded potentials.

### d. Classical Mechanics:

Newton's laws; Phase space dynamics, stability analysis; Central-force motion; Twobody collisions, scattering in laboratory and centre-of-mass frames; Rigid body dynamics, moment of inertia tensor, non-inertial frames and pseudoforces; Variational principle, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms and equations of motion; Poisson brackets and canonical transformations; Symmetry, invariance and conservation laws, cyclic coordinates; Periodic motion, small oscillations and normal modes; Special theory of relativity, Lorentz transformations, relativistic kinematics and mass-energy equivalence.