## PART-A: 100 Marks

### a. Radiometric Exploration / Airborne Geophysical surveys for Geological Mapping:

Principles of radioactivity, radioactivity decay processes, units, radioactivity of rocks and minerals, Instruments, Ionisation chamber, G-M counter, Scintillation meter, Gamma ray spectrometer, Radiometric prospecting for mineral exploration (Direct/Indirect applications), Radiometric prospecting for beach placers, titanium, zirconium and rare-earths, portable gamma ray spectrometry and radon studies in seismology, environmental Applications, logging methods, radiometric dating techniques.

Airborne geophysical surveys, planning of surveys, sensors, data corrections, flight path recovery methods, applications in geological mapping, interpretation of maps, identification of structural features, altered zones.

### b. Marine Geophysics:

Oceans and Seas, origin of continents and oceans, salinity, temperature and density of sea water. Introduction to Sea-floor features: Physiography, divisions of sea floor, continental shelves, slopes, aprons and abyssal planes, growth and decline of ocean basins, turbidity currents, submarine sedimentation and stratigraphy, occurrence of mineral deposits and hydrocarbons in offshore. Geophysical surveys and instrumentation, Gravity and Magnetic surveys, Instrumentation used in ship borne surveys, towing cable and fish, data collection and survey procedures, corrections and interpretation of data.

Oceanic magnetic anomalies, sea floor spreading, Vine-Mathews hypothesis, geomagnetic time scale and dating sea floor, linear magnetic anomalies, Oceanic heat flow, ocean ridges, basins, marginal basins, rift valleys. Seismic surveys, energy sources, Finger, Boomer, Sparker, Exploder, Air gun, Vapour cook, Hydrophones, processing, data reduction and interpretation. Bathymetry, echo sounding, bathymetric charts, sea bed mapping, seabed sampling, dredging and coring, Navigation methods and Position location methods.

### c. Geophysical Signal Processing:

Various types of signals, sampling theorem, aliasing effect, Fourier series and periodic waveforms, Fourier transform and its properties, Discrete Fourier transform and FFT, Auto and cross correlations, Power spectrum, Delta function, unit step function. Time domain windows, Z transform and properties, Inverse Z transform. Principles of digital filters, types of filters, moving average and recursive and non recursive filters Amplitude and phase response filters low pass, band pass and high pass filters, Processing of Random signals. Signal enhancement for gravity and magnetic maps; regional residual separation, continuations, evaluation of derivatives, pseudo gravity transformations, reduction to poles and equator, Improvement of signal to noise ratio, source and geophone arrays as spatial filters. Earth as low pass filter.

### d. Remote Sensing and GIS applications:

Fundamental concepts of remote sensing, electromagnetic radiation spectrum, energy-frequency-wavelength relationship, Boltzman Law, Wien Law, electromagnetic energy and its interactions in the atmosphere and with terrain features; elements of photographic systems, reflectance and emittance, false color composites, remote sensing platforms, flight planning, geosynchronous and sun synchronous orbits, sensors, resolution, parallax and vertical exaggeration, relief displacement, mosaic, aerial photo interpretation and geological application. Fundamentals of photogrammetry, satellite remote sensing, multi-spectral scanners, thermal scanners, microwave remote sensing, fundamental of image processing and interpretation for geological applications. Introduction to Geographic Information Systems (GIS) spatial data structures, visualization and querying, spatial data analysis.

## PART-B: 100 Marks

### a. Solid State Physics:

Crystalline and amorphous structure of matter; Different crystal systems, space groups; methods of determination of crystal structure; X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopes; Band theory of solids-conductors, insulators and semiconductors; Thermal properties of solids, specific heat, Debye theory; Magnetism: dia, para and ferromagnetism; elements of superconductivity; Meissner effect,

Josephson junctions and applications; elementary ideas about high temperature superconductivity.

### b. Laser systems:

Light amplification and relation between Einstein A and B coefficients. Rate equations for three level and four level systems. Ruby laser, Nd-YAG laser, CO2 laser, Dye laser, Excimer laser, Semiconductor laser.

### c. Laser cavity modes:

Line shape function and full width at half maximum (FWHM) for natural broadening, collision broadening, Doppler broadening, saturation behaviour of broadened transitioins, longitudinal and transverse modes. ABCD matrices and cavity stability criteria for confocal resonators. Quality factor, Q-switching, mode locking in lasers. Expression for intensity for modes oscillating at random and modes locke in phase. Methods of Q-switching and mode locking. Optical fiber waveguides, Fiber characteristics.

### d. Electronics and devices:

Semiconductor devices (diodes, junctions, transistors, field effect devices, homo and hetero junction devices) device structure, device characteristics, frequency dependence and applications. Opto-electronic devices (solar cells, photo detectors, LEDs) Operational amplifiers and their applications. Digital techniques and applications (registers, counters, comparators and similar circuits). A/D and D/A converters. Microprocessor and microcontroller basics. Data interpretation and analysis. Precision and accuracy. Error analysis, propagation of errors. Least square fitting. Intrinsic extrinsic semiconductors, pn-p and n-p-n transistors; Amplifiers and oscillators; Op-amps; FET, JFET and MOSFET; Digital electronics-Boolean identities, De-morgan's laws, logic gates and truth tables; simple logic circuits; thermistors, solar cells, fundamentals of microprocessors and digital computers.

### e. Digital electronics, Radar systems, Satellite communications:

Digital circuits, Number systems and codes, Combination logic circuits, sequential logic circuits, microprocessor architecture, functional diagram, Pin description, Timing diagram of read cycle, timing diagram of write cycle. Data transfer techniques-Serial transfer, parallel transfer etc. Radar systems, signal and data processing, satellite communication-Fundamentals Designing a surveillance radar, tracking radar, signal and data processing, radar antenna parameters, satellite systems-communication satellite systems, communication satellites, orbiting satellites, satellite frequency bands, satellite orbit and inclinations. Multiple access techniques, earth station technology.

### f. Quantum Mechanics:

Wave-particle duality; Wave functions in coordinate and momentum representations; Commutators and Heisenberg's uncertainty principle; Matrix representation; Dirac's bra and ket notation; Schroedinger equation (time-dependent and time-independent); Eigen value problems such as particle-in-a-box, harmonic oscillator, etc.; Tunneling through a barrier; Motion in a central potential; Orbital angular momentum, Angular momentum algebra, spin; Addition of angular momentum; Hydrogen atom, spin-orbit coupling, fine structure; Time-independent perturbation theory and applications; Variational method; WKB approximation; Time dependent perturbation theory and Fermi's Golden Rule; Selection rules; Semi-classical theory of radiation; Elementary theory of scattering, phase shifts, partial waves, Born approximation; Identical particles, Pauli's exclusion principle, spin-statistics connection; Relativistic quantum mechanics: Klein Gordon and Dirac equations.