UPSC conducts Indian Forest Services Exam for recruitment to forestry services of India. From 2013, exam pattern has changed. A new component of screening mechanism through Civil Services (Preliminary) Examination has been added.

The main examination consists of written examination and an interview test. The written examination consists of 6 papers of conventional essay type. Paper-I is General English and Paper-II is General Knowledge. The standard of papers in General English and General Knowledge is such as may be expected of a Science or Engineering graduate of an Indian University.

**Two optional subjects** have to be selected from the following subjects. Total number of questions in the question papers of optional subjects are eight. All questions carry equal marks.

Each paper is divided into two parts - Part A and Part B, each part containing four questions. Out of eight questions, five questions are to be attempted. One question in each part is compulsory.

**CSAT 2013 Cutoff for Indian Forest Service (Main) Examination, 2013 on the basis of Civil Services (Preliminary) Examination 2013.**

**1.** Minimum qualifying standards or marks approved at the Written Part of the Indian Forest Service Examination 2018:

Ecology and its relevance to man, natural resources, their sustainable management and conservation. Physical and social environment as factors of crop distribution and production. Climatic elements as factors of crop growth, impact of changing environment on cropping pattern as indicators of environments. Environmental pollution and associated hazards to crops, animals, and humans.

**Section A**

**1. Soil and Water Conservation:** Scope of soil and water conservation. Mechanics and types of erosion, their causes. Rainfall, runoff and sedimentation relationships and their measurement. Soil erosion control measures - biological and engineering including stream bank protection-vegetative barriers, contour bunds, contour trenches, contour stone walls, contour ditches, terraces, outlets and grassed waterwyas. Gully control structures - temporary and permanent - design of permanent soil conservation structures such as chute, drop and drop inlet spillways.

**1. Animal Nutrition **- Energy sources, energy, metabolism and requirements for maintenance and production of milk, meat, eggs and wool. Evaluation of feeds as sources of energy.

**1. Microbiology and Plant Pathology:** Viruses, bacteria, and plasmids-structure and reproduction. General account of infection, Phytoimmunology. Applications of microbiology in agriculture, industry, medicine and pollution control in air, soil and water. Important plant diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, mycoplasma, fungi and nematodes. Mode of infection and dissemination. Molecular basis of infection and disease resistance/defence. Physiology of parasitism and control measures. Fungal toxins.

**1. Atomic structure**

Quantum theory, Heisenberg's uncertainity principle, Schrodinger wave equation (time independent). Interpretation of wave function, particle in one-dimensional box, quantum numbers, hydrogen atom wave functions. Shapes of s, p and d orbitals.

**Section A**

**(a) Fluid and Particle Dynamics**

Viscosity of fluids. Laminar and turbulent flows. Equation of continuity and Navier-Stokes equition-Bernoulli's theorem. Flow meters. Fluid drag and pressure drop due to friction, Reynold's Number and friction factor - effect of pipe roughness. Economic pipe diameter. Pumps, water, air/steam jet ejectors, compressors, blowers and fans. Agitation and mixing of liquids. Mixing of solids and pastes. Crushing and Grinding - principles and equipment. Rittinger's and Bond's laws. Filtration and filtration equipment. Fluid-particle mechanics - free and hindered settling. Fluidisation and minimum fluidization velocity, concepts of compressible and incompressible flow. Transport of Solids.

**Part-A**

**ENGINEERING MECHANICS, STRENGTH OF MATERIALS AND STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS.**

**ENGINEERING MECHANICS :**

Units and Dimensions, SI Units, Vectors, Concept of Force, Concept of particle and rigid body. Concurrent, Non-Concurrent and parallel forces in a plane, moment of force and Varignon’s theorem, free body diagram, conditions of equilibrium, Principle of virtual work, equivalent force system.

**Section-A**

**1. Silviculture – General:**

General Silvicultural Principles: Ecological and physiological factors influencing vegetation, natural and artificial regeneration of forests; methods of propagation, grafting techniques; site factors; nursery and planting techniquesnursery beds, poly-bags and maintenance, water budgeting, grading and hardening of seedlings; special approaches; establishment and tending.

**Section-A**

**(i) General Geology:** The Solar System, meteorities, origin and interior of the earth. Radioactivity and age of earth; Volcanoes-causes and products, volcanic belts.Earthquakes-causes, effects, earthquake belts, seismicity of India, intensity and magnitude,seismongraphs. Island arcs, deep sea trenches and mid-ocean ridges. Continental drift-evidences and mechanics; sea-floor spreading, plate tectonics. Isostasy, orogeny and epeirogeny. Continents and oceans.

**Section-A**

**Linear Algebra :** Vector, space, linear dependence and independence, subspaces, bases, dimensions. Finite dimensional vector spaces. Matrices, Cayley-Hamilition theorem, eigen-values and eigenvectors, matrix of linear transformation, row and column reduction, Echelon form, equivalences, congruences and similarity, reduction to cannonical form, rank, orthogonal, symmetrical, skew symmetrical, unitary, hermitian, skewhermitian forms- their eigenvalues. Orthogonal and unitary reduction of quadratic and hermitian forms, positive definite quardratic forms.

**1. Theory of Machines :** Kinematic and dynamic analysis of planar mechanisms, Cams, Gears and gear trains, Flywheels, Governors, Balancing of rigid rotors, Balancing of single and multicylinder engines, Linear vibration analysis of mechanical systems (single degree and two degrees of freedom), Critical speeds and whirling of shafts, Automatic Controls, Belts and chain drives. Hydrodynamic bearings.

**Section-A**

**1. Classical Mechanics**

**(a) Particle dynamics:** Centre of mass and laboratory coordinates, conservation of linear and angular momentum, The rocket equation, Rutherford scattering, Galilean transformation, inertial and non-inertial frames, rotating frames, centrifugal and Coriolls forces, Foucault pendulum.

**Probability :** Sample space and events, probability measure and probability space, random variable as a measurable function, distribution function of a random variable, discrete and continuous-type random variable, probability mass function, probability density function, vector-valued random variable, marginal and conditional distributions, stochastic independence of events and of random variables, expectation and moments of a random variable, conditional expectation, convergence of a sequence of randomvariable in distribution, in probability, in pth mean and almost everywhere, their criteria and inter-relations, Borel-Cantelli lemma, Chebyshev’s and Khinchine’s weak laws of large numbers, strong law of large numbers and Kolmogorov’s theorems, Glivenko-Cantelli theorem, probability generating function, characteristic function, inversion theorem, Laplace transform, related uniqueness and continuity theorems, determination of distribution by its moments. Linderberg and Levy forms of central limit theorem, standard discrete and continuous probability distributions, their interrelations and limiting cases, simple properties of finite Markov chains.

**Section-A**

**1. Non-chordata and chordata:** (a) Classification and relationship of various phyla up-to sub-classes; Acoelomata and Coelomata; Protostomes and Deuterostomes, Bilateralia and Radiata; Status of Protista, Parazoa, Onychophora and Hemichordata; Symmetry.