Review Concepts

Quick review of important concepts asked in the UPSC exams.

Concepts Index

Climate of India

India has monsoon type of climate. The word 'monsoon' refers to the seasonal reversal of the wind direction in a year. Due to this, India has four prominent seasons - cold weather season, hot weather season, advancing southwest monsoon season and post or retreating monsoon season.

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Bio Diversity in India

The diversity of plants and animal provide us food, fuel, medicine, shelter and other essentials without which we cannot live. Bio-diversity is a short form of biological diversity. In simple terms, bio-diversity is the total number of genes, species and ecosystems of a region. It includes (i) genetic diversity (ii) species diversity and (iii) eco-system diversity.

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Governance at Union Level

The Constitution of India has made alternate provision for the structure and functioning of all the three branches of the government - executive, legislature and judiciary, The President, the Council of Ministers with Prime Minister constitute the executive branch of the Government, the Parliament with its two houses - House of the People or Lok Sabha and Council of States or Rajya Sabha is the legislative branch and the Supreme Court heads the judicial branch.

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Quadratic Equations

Quadratic polynomial is a polynomial of degree 2. Quadratic equation is an equation having degree 2. General form of a quadratic equation is ax2 + bx + c = 0, a ≠ 0 where a, b, c are real numbers and x is a variable.

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Food and Nutrition

Food is an essential requirement for obtaining energy needed for performing vital activities. Food also helps in growth, maintenance, repair and protection from various diseases.

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Control and Coordination

Nervous system (NS) and endocrine system together ensure that all the parts of the body work in a controlled and coordinated manner. NS includes brain, spinal cord, sense organs and nerves.

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Optics: Light Energy

Light is the form of energy which makes the objects visible to us. When light reaches from object to our eyes, it becomes visible to us. Reflection, refraction and dispersion are the important properties of light.

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Physiography of India

India is the seventh largest country of the world. It extends from the state of Jammu and Kashmir in the North to the state of Tamil Nadu in the South; from the state of Arunachal Pradesh in the east to the state of Gujarat in the west.

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Carbon and its Compounds

Diamond has a three-dimensional network of covalently bonded carbon atom. It is hard and colourless. It has high melting and boiling point and is a good conductor of heat but poor conductor of electricity.

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Motion

A continuous change in the position of the object with respect to time is called motion.

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Natural Environment

In an ecosystem, living organisms interact among themselves and also with the surroundings. Ecosystem is divided into two basic categories - terrestrial and aquatic. Humans can also make ecosystems. For example, aquarium, gardens and agricultural fields are examples of man-made ecosystem.

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Percentage and its Applications

Percent means per every hundred and denoted by the symbol %. A fraction with denominator 100 is called a Percent.

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Matter

Anything that has mass and occupies space is matter. There are three different physical states of matter - solid, liquid and gas. A particular state of matter can be changed into other states by changing the temperature or pressure.

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Agriculture in India

India is said to be the land of farmers and these farmers are mostly living in the rural India. Various types of agricultural activities are found in different parts of the country. Agriculture is categorised into different types on the basis of purpose of farming.

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Metals and Non-metals

Elements are broadly classified as metals non-metals. Metals can be distinguished from non-metal on the basis of their physical properties like malleability ductility, lusture. Metals have tendency to lose electrons whereas non-metal have tendency to gain electrons. Thus, metals show electropositive character whereas non-metals show electronegative character.

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Water

Water is essential for survival of all living beings. Although sea water is the largest natural source of water, it is unfit for domestic use and drinking. Decantation, filtration, chlorination and boiling are some of the steps that convert non potable water into potable water.

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Air

Air is a mixture of different gases. It contains oxygen, Nitrogen, Argon, Carbon dioxide and traces of some inert gases. It also contains water vapour.

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Heredity

Features passed down from one generation to the other is Heredity or Inheritance. Genes control heredity. Differences in features of individuals of the same species is variation.

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Reproduction

Giving rise to offspring of one’s own kind is called Reproduction. Reproduction is a means for continuance of species. It is a characteristic of all living beings.

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Respiration

Respiration provides O2 to cells for energy production and removes CO2 from cells.

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