Diamond has a three-dimensional network of covalently bonded carbon atom. It is hard and colourless. It has high melting and boiling point and is a good conductor of heat but poor conductor of electricity.
Graphite is soft, black, and slippery in nature and has a layered structure. It is a good conductor of electricity. Fullerenes contain carbon atoms arranged in closed structures similar to football. Charcoal, coke and carbon black are micro-crystalline forms of carbon.
The compounds of carbon can be classified as organic and inorganic. Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide are two important inorganic compounds of carbon. Organic compounds of carbon are hydrocarbons and their derivatives.
Carbon can form long chains of carbon atoms. This unique property of forming long chains is known as catenation. Carbon show three allotropic forms - Diamond, Graphite, and Fullerens.
Hydrocarbons are classified as saturated and unsaturated. The saturated hydrocarbons contain carbon-carbon single bonds whereas the unsaturated hydrocarbons contain carbon-carbon multiple bonds.
Isomers have same molecular formula but different structure.
Some functional groups include halogens, alcohols (hydroxyl), aldehydes and ketones (carbonyl), carboxylic acid, esters. Functional groups is an atom or a group of atoms which is responsible for characteristic properties of a compound.