Constitution is a legal document which determines the structure of the government and direction to which society is to move on. A democratic constitution represents consensus among the people on certain rules, principles, procedures and ideals and guides the social and political institutions.
Constitution means a set of fundamental principles and basic rules which identify, define and regulate the various aspects of the state, its powers and functions. A Constitution provides rights and freedoms of the individual citizens and also determines the relationship between the citizens and the State.
1. Sovereignty: India is a Sovereign state which means that it has complete political freedom. It is free from any external interference and is a supreme authority internally also.
2. Socialism: It implies that our Constitution and the Indian state aim at promoting social transformation to end all forms of inequalities and particularly social and economic inequalities.
3. Secularism: India is a Secular Country. It is not guided by any one religion or religious consideration. The State does not promote any religion but treats all religions equally.
4. Democracy: Preamble of the Indian constitution starts with; “We the people of India….” It implies that India is Democracy and ultimate power lies with the people of India. People elect their representatives by a system of universal adult franchise.
5. Republic: India is a republic because the President of India i.e. the Head of the Indian State, is elected by the people from among the people.
6. Justice: Constitution ensures socio-economic and political justice to all the citizens to create a new social order based on socio-economic equality.
7. Liberty: Freedom of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship.
8. Equality: Equality of status and opportunities.
9. Fraternity: Promotes common brotherhood among all people of India.
10. Dignity of Individual: Ensures equal participation of every individual in all processes of democratic governance.
11. Unity and Integrity of the Nation: Value of fraternity helps in strengthening the unity and integrity of the nation.
12. International Peace and Just International Order: Constitution makers were aware of the fact that to ensure constitutional objectives, international peace and just international order is essential.
13. Fundamental Duties: Citizens are expected to observe Fundamental Duties, although these duties are not enforceable in the court but they do act as moral obligations.