Fundamental Rights and Duties, Welfare State

In a Democratic Country like India certain basic and fundamental rights have been granted to every citizen, but in many parts of the world people are still struggling for these rights.

Rights: Rights are the claims of the individual which are essential for the development of personality and are recognised by society and the state. Rights which are recognised by the State and have been enshrined in the Constitution are called Fundamental Rights. They are justiceable or enforceable by law. Six Fundamental Rights are provided in the Part-III of the Indian Constitution.

  1. Right to Equality
  2. Right to Freedom
  3. Right against Exploitation
  4. Right to Freedom of Religion
  5. Cultural and Educational Right
  6. Right to Constitutional Remedies

Fundamental Duties

Ten Fundamental Duties were added in Part IV of the Constitution. Later on one more Fundamental Duty was added by Right to Education Act 2009.

Welfare State

India is described as a Welfare State. It is a concept of government in which the State plays a key role in the protection and promotion of economic and social well-being of its citizens. A Welfare State is based on the principles of equality of opportunity and equitable distribution of wealth. Under this system, the welfare of citizens is the responsibility of the State.

The Constitution of India has extensive provisions to ensure social and economic welfare of the people in the form of Fundamental Rights and the other as Directive Principles of State policy.

Directive Principles of State Policy

The founding fathers of the Constitution were aware that even if all the Fundamental Rights are truly enforced, the goals of Indian Democracy would not be realised unless the people of India could avail of social and economic rights. This was done by including a separate chapter as Part IV known as the Directive Principle of State Policy.

Inclusion of Directive Principles in the Constitution was inspired by the Constitution of Ireland and the Gandhian Philosophy. These are guidelines for the State and are non-justiceable.

The aim of these principles is to create such conditions where all citizens should be able to lead a good life. These principles are meant to establish social and economic democracy.