India is a Federation having governments at two levels - State level and Union or Central level. The three branches of government - executive, legislature and judiciary exist and function at both the levels.
The State executive consists of the Governor, the Chief Minister and the Council of Ministers. The Governor exercises all powers on the advice of the Council of Ministers.
The Governor of a State is appointed by the President of India for a term of 5 years. The Chief Minister is appointed by the governor provided he or she is the leader of the majority party in the legislative Assembly.
In India every State has its own legislature. They are of two kinds - bicameral and unicameral. Bicameral legislature has two houses - lower house and the upper house. In a unicameral legislature the house is known as legislative assembly or Vidhan Sabha whereas in the bicameral legislature the two houses are known as legislative assembly and legislative council i.e. Vidhan Sabha and Vidhan Parishad.
The tenure of the Vidhan Sabha is of five years. However, the Governor may dissolve the Assembly earlier on the advice of the Chief Minister.
3. High Court and Subordinate Courts
In India, there has to be a High Court for every State. However, if need be a High Court may have more than one State under its jurisdiction. As an exception we find that the Guwahati High court acts as a common High Court for the States of Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur and Tripura. Similarly, the Union Territories come under the jurisdiction of the High Court of the neighbouring States.
Each High Court has a Chief Justice and Judges. For appointment of the Chief Justice of the High Court, the President consults the Chief Justice of Supreme Court, whereas for the Judges, he or she consults the Chief Justice of the concerned High Court and the Governor of the concerned State.
Subordinate or Lower Courts
Civil Cases: These cases pertain to disputes between two or more persons regarding property, breach of agreement or contract, divorce or disputes between landlords and tenants.
Criminal Cases: These cases relate to theft, robbery, rape, pick-pocketing, physical assault, murder. These cases are filed in the criminal courts by the police, on behalf of the State.
Revenue Courts Board of Revenue exists at the State level, Under it are the Courts of Commissioner, Collectors, Tehsildars and Assistant Tehsildars. The Board of Revenue hears the final appeals against all the lower revenue courts under it.