There was transformation of European Society after the downfall of the Roman Empire, and the birth of a new religion called Islam which led to the founding of a vast empire that originated in West Asia and spread out over a large part of the world.

1. Feudalism was a hierarchical or graded organization of political sovereignty; its structure stood like a ladder. At the top stood the king; below him stood the big lords known as Dukes and Earls.

Below these lords were a number of lesser lords known as the Barons. Below these were the knights, who were perhaps the lowest lords. The vassal would take a vow to serve the lord all his life mainly including military services.

The entire landed estate over which a feudal lord had control was known as the manor. The manor was a self-sufficient economic unit. This means that almost all articles of everyday use were produced and consumed on it.

2. Decline of Roman Empire

The western province’s capital was Rome and Eastern’s Constantinople. The Roman Empire in the west came to an end following attacks by various Germanic tribes like the Goths, Vandals, Visigoths and Franks.

3. Change in Feudal Economy

The few centuries after the collapse of Roman Empire were marked by a low level of economic life. There was a decline in town life, trade and monetary exchange. Technology used in agriculture was backward and agriculture yields were low.

During this period, learning remained a privilege of the few. The masses received no formal education. The language of learning was Latin which was known only to the priestly class.

4. Arab Civilization During Medieval Period

Arabia is a penisula of deserts. Before the founding of lslam, most Arabs were Bedouins, that is, wandering camel herdsmen. Arabia become a safer transit route for Caravans going between Africa and Asia. The most prominent of these was Macca which lay on the junction of some major trade routes.

Prophet Muhammad who spread Islam was born in Mecca in to the Quraish tribe in 570 A.D. He grew up to be a prosperous trader, entering the service of a rich widow Khadija, whom he later married.

The word ‘Islam’ means absolute submission to God and adherence to faith. The followers of this faith are known as Muslim. Arab philosophy was based on the study of earlier Greek thought. Greek Philosophy was cultivated by philosophers who believed in rationality.