With the decline of feudalism, the restrictions on peasants become a thing of the past simultaneously, the period witnessed the rise of powerful merchant class, which financed discoveries of new lands. These, with other factors, brought about the Industrial revolution which led a sea change throughout the world. This was the begining of the Modern Age.

1. Renaissance

Renaissance is the awakening that encouraged thinking and reasoning in social and political fields and affected every aspect of life. Discovery of trade routes, brought goods that
enriched the lives of Europeans.

New ideas were generated in this period like humanism, rationalism and the spirit of inquiry.

2. Reformation

The Medieval Catholic Church came to be associated with superstitions and greed for money. It was in 1517 AD that in the West the Christian world was divided into two sects, the Protestants and the Roman Catholics.

3. Development of Science

Renaissance scientists paved the way for observation and experimentation in all fields of knowledge. One of the most remarkable achievements of the Renaissance period in science was in the field of astronomy.

4. Discovery of New Lands

The new Trade routes that were discovered that changed the history of the world. Direct sea routes to South Asia and South East Asia were discovered.

Vasco da Gama discovered the sea route to India via Cape of Good Hope and Columbus who had set out for India reached America, both being discoveries for Europeans. The tremendous increase in trade and colonisation had a great impact on the enhancement of European Wealth.

5. Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution began in England from about 1750 AD. The new developments like the coming in of new machineries to improve production led to unequal classes - the rich and the poor.

6. Age of Revolutions

There was a very strong dissatisfaction with political leadership and people started demanding more participation in the affairs of the State.