Giving rise to offspring of one’s own kind is called Reproduction. Reproduction is a means for continuance of species. It is a characteristic of all living beings.

Reproduction may happen in two ways, from a single parent - Asexual, and through male and female involving mostly two parents - Sexual.

Asexual Reproduction - Vegetative propagation in plants: New plants arise from stem or leaf or roots. For example, grass, potato, ginger. Vegetative propagation may be done artificially by humans through different methods like layering, cutting, gootee.

Sexual Reproduction in Plants

Flower is the reproductive organ of plants. The male gamete is the pollen grain which develops in anther of the stamen. The female gamete is the ovule that develops in the ovary of the pistil. Pollination is the transfer of pollen to the stigma of same flower (self pollination) or another flower of same species (cross pollination). Pollination occurs by means of wind, water or insects.

Fertilisation takes place when nucleus of pollen grain fuses with that of ovule. Ovules develop into seeds and flower into fruit. Seeds germinate into a new plant.

Animals

Mostly, the animals reproduce by sexual reproduction. Asexual reproduction occurs only in primitive animals like sponges and hydra. They also have sexual reproduction.

Human reproduction

Male and Female reproductive organs are found in separate individuals. Sperms made in testes reach the fallopian tube. Fertilisation occurs there. Development of the zygote (fertilised egg) begins and then reaches the uterus, attaches to its wall and is ready to be delivered in 280 days and begin life as a human being.