There was a very strong dissatisfaction with political leadership and people started demanding more participation in the affairs of the State.
1. The Glorius Revolution: The Glorious Revolution of 1688 occurred in England. It became a source of inspiration for the world. It was called the Glorious Revolution because no blood was shed to achieve its success.
2. American War of Independence: In 1765, the British Parliament passed the Stamp Act. On 16th December, 1773 some Americans disguised as Native Indians descended upon the three ships of East India Company and dumped the tea, being carried in them, into the sea. This came to be called the Boston Tea Party. This led to fights and finally to the Declaration of Independence on July 1776 at a Congress at Philadelphia.
3. French Revolution: In the 18th century, the French society was divided into three classes or estates. The first Estate was that of clergy or priests working in the Church. The second Estate of Nobility enjoyed all the luxuries and many privileges related to religion and the governance of the country. The Third Estate of Commoners such as
peasantry, city workers and the middle class were heavily burdened with taxes.
The Third Estate demanded equality in taxation and abolition of special privileges enjoyed by the first two estates. It declared itself a National Assembly and took over the sovereign power from the Emperor. As a result, France witnessed a complete change in the government, administration, military, society and culture.
4. Unification of Italy: In the 18th Century, Italy was a collection of small States, each having its own monarch and traditions. After France became a republic, secret clubs favouring an Italian Republic were formed throughout Italy.
5. Unification of Germany: After Napoleon's defeat in 1815, many Germans wanted an independent Germany. Germany was a confederation of 39 small states, led by Austria and Prussia. The King of Prussia, Kaiser William I, chose Bismarck as Prime Minister to unify Germany under the rule of Prussia, excluding Austria and France completely.
6. Socialist Movement and the Russian Revolution: The Industrial Revolution had led to an unequal society. The industrial workers were poverty-striken and lived in very bad conditions. In contrast, the industrialist were rich and lived in luxury.
The workers got united and the idea of Socialism, which tries to establish equal society, began to take roots. The first country where the idea of socialism took deep roots was Russia leading to the Russian Revolution. This resulted in the establishment of the first socialist government of the world.