All the questions are to be attempted. The number of marks carried by a question/part is indicated against it. Answers must be written in English only.

1. Answer all the following questions in not more than the word limits indicated in the brackets at the end of the questions:

1.(a) Trace the growth of Bhakti movement in South India. (100 words) [10]

1.(b) How did the ‘mansabdari’ system develop as the ‘steel frame’ of the Mughal empire? (100 words) [10]

1.(c) Describe how in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century people of ‘depressed classes’ became more assertive under leaders like Jyotiba Phule and Periyar. (200 words) [15]

1.(d) How can one explain Gandhi’s ‘rise to power’? (200 words) [15]

2. Answer all the following questions in not more than 100 words each:

2.(a) Examine the view that the idea of replacing Planning Commission by National Institution for Transforming India (or ‘NITI Aayog’) has given a completely new dimension to the process of development planning in the country. [10]

2.(b) What are the challenges related to provision of Universal Health Care in India? [10]

2.(c) Examine the policy of ‘demonetisation’ that the Government of India adopted in November 2016? [10]

2.(d) Write a note on recent policies regarding Balance of Payments (BOP) management in India. [10]

2.(e) Briefly discuss the major elements of World Trade Organization’s (WTO’s) 10th Ministerial Conference, 2015, held in Nairobi with particular reference to India. [10]

3. Answer all the following questions in not more than 100 words each:

3.(a) What are the significant features of Directive Principles of State Policy? [10]

3.(b) What is rule of law? Explain. [10]

3.(c) Do you think National Commission for Scheduled Castes succeeded in protecting Scheduled Caste communities? Give reasons for your answer. [10]

3.(d) Do you perceive development discourse in contemporary India ensures economic democracy? Elaborate. [10]

3.(e) Why is that Media is characterised as the Fourth Pillar of Indian Democracy? [10]

4. Answer all the following questions within the word limits indicated in brackets at the end of the questions:

4.(a) Write the mechanism of landslides. What are the causes of the occurrence of landslides? (150 words) [5+10=15]

4.(b) Distinguish between soil erosion and land degradation. How can you control soil erosion? (150 words) [5+10-15]

4.(c) “Most of the important hot deserts of the world are located in the tropical region” - Justify this fact. (150 words) [10]

4.(d) What are ‘geomorphological resources’? How are geomorphological resources linked with geomorphological hazards? (150 words) [5+5=10]

5. Answer all the following questions in not more than 100 words each:

5.(a) What are the advantages of organic farming? [10]

5.(b) Describe the uses of ‘Neem Coated Urea’. [10]

5.(c) What are biogradable plastics? [10]

5.(d) Explain dryland farming. [10]

5.(e) What are biogeographic zones of India? [10]

5.(f) What is ‘Mridaparikshak’ developed by ICAR? [10]

6. Answer all the following questions in not more than 100 words:

6.(a) What are the significant uses of drones? [10]

6.(b) What is meant by digital signature? [10]

6.(c) What are gravitational waves? [10]

6.(d) Explain the meaning of ‘Robotarium’? [10]