The exam was conducted on 22 April, 2018.

51. Which one of the following statements is correct?

  • (a)  Any energy transfer that does not involve temperature difference in some way is not heat.
  • (b)  Any energy transfer always requires a temperature difference
  • (c)  On heating the length and volume of the object remain exactly the same
  • (d)  Whenever there is a temperature difference, heat is the only way of energy transfer

52. If T is the time period of an oscillating pendulum, which one the following statements is not correct?

  • (a)  The motion repeats after time T only once
  • (b)  T is the least time after which motion repeats itself
  • (c)  The motion repeats itself after nT, where n is a positive integer
  • (d)  T remains the same only for small angular displacements

53. If an object moves with constant velocity then which one of the following statements is not correct?

  • (a)  Its motion is along a straight line
  • (b)  Its speed changes with time
  • (c)  Its acceleration is zero
  • (d)  Its displacement increases linearly with time

54. An object is moving, with uniform acceleration a. Its initial velocity is u and after time t its velocity is v. The equation of its motion is v = u + at. The velocity (along y-axis) time (along x-axis) graph shall be a straight line

  • (a)  passing through origin
  • (b)  with x-intercept u
  • (c)  with y-intercept u
  • (d)  with slope u

55. What is the net force experienced by a bar magnet placed in a uniform magnetic field?

  • (a)  Zero
  • (b)  Depends upon length of the magnet
  • (c)  Never zero
  • (d)  Depends upon temperature

56. Which one of the following has maximum inertia?

  • (a)  An atom
  • (b)  A molecule
  • (c)  A one-rupee coin
  • (d)  A cricket ball

57. Which one of the following is the value of 1 kWh of energy converted into joules?

  • (a)  1.8 × 106 J
  • (b)  3.6 × 106 J
  • (c)  6.0 × 106 J
  • (d)  7.2× 106 J

58. Which one of the following statements about gravitational force is not correct?

  • (a)  It is experienced by all bodies in the universe
  • (b)  It is a dominant force between celestial bodies
  • (c)  It is a negligible force for atoms
  • (d)  It is same for all pairs of bodies in our universe

59. Whether an object will float or sink in a liquid, depends on

  • (a)  mass of the object only
  • (b)  mass of the object and density of liquid only
  • (c)  difference in the densities of the object and liquid
  • (d)  mass and shape of the object only

60. Which one of the, following devices is non-ohmic?

  • (a)  Conducting copper coil
  • (b)  Electric heating coil
  • (c)  Semi conductor diode
  • (d)  Rheostat

61. Which one of the following is the natural phenomenon based on which a simple periscope works?

  • (a)  Reflection of light
  • (b)  Refraction of light
  • (c)  Dispersion of light
  • (d)  Total internal reflection of light

62. Which one of the following frequency range is sensitive to human ears?

  • (a)  0 – 200 Hz
  • (b)  20 – 20000 Hz
  • (c)  200 – 20000 Hz only
  • (d)  2,000 – 20000 Hz only

63. The accidental touch of Nettle leaves creates a burning sensation, which is due to inject of

  • (a)  hydrochloric acid
  • (b)  methanoic acid
  • (c)  citric acid
  • (d)  sulphuric acid

64. Which of the following properties is true for a tooth paste?

  • (a)  It is acidic.
  • (b)  It is neutral.
  • (c)  It is basic.
  • (d)  It is made up of calcium phosphate, the material of tooth enamel.

65. Which one of the following gives the highest amount of hydrogen ions (H+)?

  • (a)  Sodium hydroxide solution
  • (b)  Milk of magnesia
  • (c)  Lemon juice
  • (d)  Gastric juice

66. Brine is an aqueous solution of

  • (a)  NaCl
  • (b)  NaOH
  • (c)  NaHCO3
  • (d)  Na2CO3

67. Which one of the following is the chemical formula of Washing Soda?

  • (a)  NaCO3
  • (b)  Na2CO3.10H2O
  • (c)  Na2CO3.5H2O
  • (d)  NaOH

68. Which one of the following is not true for bleaching powder?

  • (a)  It is used as a reducing agent in chemical industries
  • (b)  It is used for bleaching wood pulp in paper factories
  • (c)  It is used for disinfecting drinking water
  • (d)  It is used for bleaching linen in textile industry

69. AIDS is caused by a virus whose genetic material is

  • (a)  single stranded circular DNA
  • (b)  double stranded DNA
  • (c)  single stranded RNA
  • (d)  double stranded RNA

70. Which one of the following organelle is not found in prokaryotic cells?

  • (a)  Cell wall
  • (b)  Mitochondria
  • (c)  Plasma membrane
  • (d)  Ribosome

71. Which one of the following parts of body does not take part in the process of breathing?

  • (a)  Bronchi
  • (b)  Bowman’s capsule
  • (c)  Diaphragm
  • (d)  Trachea

72. Which one of the following statements about classification of plants is correct?

  • (a)  Thallophytes have well differentiated body design
  • (b)  Funaria is a fungus
  • (c)  All Pteridophytes are Phanerogams
  • (d)  Vascular system is not found among Bryophytes

73. Which one of the following is the correct sequence of levels of hierarchy of classification of organisms from higher to lower?

  • (a)  Phylum – Glass – Order – Family – Genus
  • (b)  Phylum – Class – Family – Order – Genus
  • (c)  Family – Order – Class – Species – Genus
  • (d)  Class – Family – Order – Species – Genus

74. Which one of the following statements about meristematic tissues in plants is correct?

  • (a)  These are dead tissues and form wood
  • (b)  They provide flexibility to plant due to their thickened walls
  • (c)  These are present in the bark of a tree only     
  • (d)  Growth occurs in plants due to division of cells of these tissues

75. Which one of the following Union Territories has the highest female literacy rate?

  • (a)  Chandigarh
  • (b)  Lakshadweep
  • (c)  Andaman and Nicobar Islands
  • (d)  Puducherry

76. Consider the following statements about Roaring Forties:

(1) They are strong Westerly winds found in the oceans of Southern Hemisphere.

(2) The strong East to West air currents are caused by the combination of air being displaced from the Equator towards the South Pole and the Earth’s rotation and abundance of landmasses to serve as wind breaks.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  • (a)  Only 1
  • (b)  Only 2
  • (c)  Both 1 and 2
  • (d)  Neither 1 nor 2

77. Consider the following statements

(1) The doldrums is a low pressure area around Equator where the prevailing winds are calm.

(2) Chinook is a hot and dry wind that blows in winter and therefore raises the temperature in short time.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  • (a)  Only 1
  • (b)  Only 2
  • (c)  Both 1 and 2
  • (d)  Neither 1 nor 2

78. Which one of the following is the driest desert of the world?

  • (a)  Atacama
  • (b)  Gobi
  • (c)  Sahara
  • (d)  Kalahari

79. Which of the following statements about latent heat for a given substance is/are correct?

(1) It is fixed at a given temperature.

(2) It depends upon the temperature and volume.

(3) It is independent of temperature and volume.

(4) It depends on the temperature but independent of volume.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below

  • (a)  Only 2
  • (b)  1 and 3
  • (c)  Only 4
  • (d)  1 and 4

80. Which one of the following statements about the mass of a body is correct?

  • (a)  It changes from one place to another.
  • (b)  It is same everywhere.
  • (c)  It depends on its shape.
  • (d)  It does not depend on its temperature.

81. A ball balanced on a vertical rod is an example of

  • (a)  stable equilibrium
  • (b)  unstable equilibrium
  • (c)  neutral equilibrium
  • (d)  perfect equilibrium

82. Which of the following statements about a fluid at rest in a cup is/are correct?

(1) Pressure is same-at all the points in the fluid.

(2) Pressure is exerted on the walls.

(3) Pressure exists everywhere in the fluid.

Select the correct answer ‘using the codes given below

  • (a)  1 and 2
  • (b)  2 and 3
  • (c)  only 1
  • (d)  All of these

83. Which one of the following devices is sued to measure atmospheric pressure?

  • (a)  Ammeter
  • (b)  Barometer
  • (c)  Potentiometer
  • (d)  Lactometer

84. Which one of the following is the number of water molecules that share with two formula unit CaSO4 in Plaster of Paris?

  • (a)  One
  • (b)  Two
  • (c)  Five
  • (d)  Ten

85. How is carbon black obtained?

  • (a)  By heating wood at high temperature in a absence of air
  • (b)  By heating coal at high temperature in absence of air
  • (c)  By burning hydrocarbons in a limited supply of air
  • (d)  By heating coal at high temperature in presence of air

86. Which one of the following properties is not true for graphite?

  • (a)  Hybridization of each carbon atom is sp3
  • (b)  Hybridization of each carbon atom is sp2
  • (c)  Electrons are delocalized over the whole sheet of atoms
  • (d)  Each layer is composed of hexagonal rings

87. Which one of the following is the purest form of carbon?

  • (a)  Charcoal
  • (b)  Coke
  • (c)  Fullerene
  • (d)  Carbon black

88. The poisonous nature of carbon monoxide (CO) is due to its

  • (a)  insolubility in water
  • (b)  ability to form a complex with haemoglobin
  • (c)  ability to reduce some metal oxides
  • (d)  property of having one sigma bond

89. Which one of the following elements is needed in the human body to transfer electrical signals by nerve cells?

  • (a)  Lithium
  • (b)  Sodium
  • (c)  Rubidium
  • (d)  Caesium

90. Who among the following first discovered cell?

  • (a)  Robert Brown
  • (b)  Robert Hooke
  • (c)  Leeuwenhoek
  • (d)  Rudolf Virchow

91. Which one of the following group of organisms forms a food chain?

  • (a)  Grass, human and fish
  • (b)  Grass, goat and human
  • (c)  Tree, tree cutter and tiger
  • (d)  Goat, cow and human

92. Which one of the following types of tissues will have contractile proteins?

  • (a)  Nervous tissue
  • (b)  Muscle tissue
  • (c)  Bone tissue
  • (d)  Blood tissue

93. If by an unknown accident the acid secreting cells of the stomach wall of an individual are damaged. Digestion of which one of the following biomolecule will be affected to a greater extent?

  • (a)  Protein only
  • (b)  Lipid
  • (c)  Carbohydrate only
  • (d)  Protein and Carbohydrate

94. In which one of the following places, Headquarters of a Railway Zone is located?

  • (a)  Kanpur
  • (b)  Lucknow
  • (c)  Hajipur
  • (d)  New Jalpaiguri

95. Which of the following statements about Indian Academy of Highway Engineers is/are correct?

(1) It is a registered society.

(2) It is collaborative body of both Central government and State governments.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below

  • (a)  Only 1
  • (b)  Only 2
  • (c)  Both 1 and 2
  • (d)  Neither 1 nor 2

96. Which one of the following is not a tributary of Indus river?

  • (a)  Beas
  • (b)  Ravi
  • (c)  Chenab
  • (d)  Tawi       

97. Which one among the following is the largest tiger reserve of India in terms of area of the core/critical tiger habitat?

  • (a)  Manas
  • (b)  Pakke
  • (c)  Nagarjunasagar Srisailam
  • (d)  Periyar

98. Which one of the, following is not a coastal depositional feature?

  • (a)  Tombolo
  • (b)  Sand bar
  • (c)  Stack
  • (d)  Spit

99. Which of the following is/are coastal erosional feature(s)?

(1) Notch       (2) Sea Arch

(3) Cliff         (4) Hook

Select the correct answer using the codes given below

  • (a)  1, 2 and 3
  • (b)  2, 3 and 4
  • (c)  2 and 3
  • (d)  Only 1

100. Chemical weathering of rocks is much greater in place with

  • (a)  cold and dry climate
  • (b)  hot and humid climate
  • (c)  hot and dry climate
  • (d)  cold and humid climate

101. Which of the following statements about specific heat of a body is/are correct?

(1) It depends upon mass and shape of the body

(2) It is independent of mass and shape of the body

(3) It depends only upon the temperature of the body

Select the correct answer using the codes given below

  • (a)  Only 1
  • (b)  2 and 3
  • (c)  1 and 3
  • (d)  Only 2

102. Which one of the following is an example of the force of gravity of the earth acting on a vibrating pendulum bob?

  • (a)  Applied force
  • (b)  Frictional force
  • (c)  Restoring force
  • (d)  Virtual force

103. Which one of the following statements about the refractive index of a material medium with respect to air is correct?

  • (a)  It can be either positive or negative.
  • (b)  It can have zero value.
  • (c)  It is unity for all materials.
  • (d)  It is always greater than one.

104. Which one of the following statements about magnetic field lines is not correct?

  • (a)  They can emanate from a point
  • (b)  They do not cross each other
  • (c)  Field lines between two poles cannot be precisely straight lines at the ends
  • (d)  There are no filed lines within a bar magnet

105. Two convex lenses with power 2 dioptre are kept in contact with each other. The focal length of the combined lens system is

  • (a)  0.10 m
  • (b)  2 m
  • (c)  4 m
  • (d)  0.25 m

106. Which one of the following alkali metals has lowest melting point?

  • (a)  Sodium
  • (b)  Potassium
  • (c)  Rubidium
  • (d)  Caesium

107. Which one of the following metals is alloyed with sodium to transfer heat in a nuclear reactor?

  • (a)  Potassium
  • (b)  Calcium
  • (c)  Magnesium
  • (d)  Strontium

108. Which one of the following metals is used in the filaments of photo-electric cells that convert light energy into electric energy?

  • (a)  Tungsten
  • (b)  Copper
  • (c)  Rubidium
  • (d)  Aluminium

109. Which of the following statements about Ring of Fire is/are correct?

(1) It is a zone of convergence plate boundaries.

(2) It is an active seismic and volcanic zone.

(3) It is associated with deep trench.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below

  • (a)  1 and 2
  • (b)  2 and 3
  • (c)  Only 1
  • (d)  All of these

110. Which one of the following Himalayan vegetation species is found between the altitudes of 1800 to 2600 m?

  • (a)  Saal
  • (b)  Chir
  • (c)  Spruce
  • (d)  Deodar

111. Which one of the following rivers is not a tributary of river Cauvery?

  • (a)  Hemavati
  • (b)  Arkavati
  • (c)  Indravati
  • (d)  Amravati

112. Which of the following conditions is/are essential for tea cultivation?

(1) Tropical and sub-tropical climate

(2) Heavy rainfall ranging from 150 cm to 250 cm

(3) Soil should contain good amount of lime.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below

  • (a)  All of these
  • (b)  1 and 2
  • (c)  2 and 3
  • (d)  Only 1

113. Bharatmala Project is related to

  • (a)  Improving road connectivity
  • (b)  Interlinking ports and railways
  • (c)  Interlinking of rivers
  • (d)  Interlinking major cities with gas pipelines

114. Which one of the following is a local wind that blows out from Siberia?

  • (a)  Bora
  • (b)  Purga
  • (c)  Mistral
  • (d)  Blizzard

115. Which one of the following centres is not known for iron and steel industry?

  • (a)  Bhadravati       
  • (b)  Salem
  • (c)  Vishakhapatnam
  • (d)  Renukoot

116. Which of the following are essential prerequisites for establishment of a thermal power station?

(1) Availability of fossil fuels

(2) Proximity to a river, lake or sea

(3) Good transport network

(4) Proximity to an urban centre

Select the correct answer using the codes given below

  • (a)  1, 2 and 3
  • (b)  2 and 4
  • (c)  2 and 3
  • (d)  1 and 3

117. Which of the following statements about ‘Aadi Mahotsav’ held recently in New Delhi is/are correct?

(1) The theme of the festival was ‘A Celebration of the Spirit of Tribal Culture, Cuisine and Commerce’

(2) The festival was organized by the Ministry of Tourism, government of India

Select the correct answer using the codes given  below

  • (a)  Only 1
  • (b)  Only 2
  • (c)  Both 1 and 2
  • (d)  Neither 1 nor 2

118. Light year is a unit for measurement of

  • (a)  age of universe
  • (b)  very large distance
  • (c)  very small time intervals
  • (d)  very high temperature

 

119. Which of the following statements about electromagnetic waves, sound waves and water waves is/are” correct?

(1) The exhibit reflection.

(2) They carry energy.

(3) They exert pressure.

(4) They can travel in vacuum.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below

  • (a)  1, 2 and 3
  • (b)  2 and 4
  • (c)  1 and 3
  • (d)  Only 1

120. Thermal capacity of a body depends on the

  • (a)  mass of the body only
  • (b)  mass and shape of the body only 
  • (c)  density of the body   
  • (d)  mass, shape and temperature of the body

121. Who among the following first used the term ‘Industrial Revolution’ in English to describe, the changes that occurred in British industrial development between 1760 and 1820?

  • (a)  Karl Marx
  • (b)  Georges Michelet
  • (c)  Arnold Toynbee
  • (d)  Friedrich Engels

122. Which one of the following statements about the Olympe de Gouges (1748 – 1793) is correct?

  • (a)  She declared that although citizens should have equal rights, they are not entitled to the same honours by the State.
  • (b)  She was a supporter of the Jacobin government.
  • (c)  She was jailed for treason by the National Assembly.
  • (d)  She declared that the nation is the union of woman and man.

123. Who among the following built a model steam engine in 1698 called “Miner’s Friend” to drain mines?

  • (a)  Thomas Savery
  • (b)  Thomas Newcomen
  • (c)  James Watt
  • (d)  Richard Arkwright

124. Which one of the following statements about Renaissance Humanist culture is not true?

  • (a)  It slackened the control of religion over human life.
  • (b)  It believed that human nature was many-sided.
  • (c)  It was concerned with good manners.
  • (d)  It criticized material wealth, power and glory.

125. Who gifted the Badshah Nama to King George in 1799?

  • (a)  Abul Fazl
  • (b)  Abdul Hamid Lahori
  • (c)  Nawab of Awadh
  • (d)  William Jones

126. What is the name of the award given to meritorious men in the Mughal Court in the form of a robe of honour that was once worn by the Emperor?

  • (a)  Sarapa
  • (b)  Patka
  • (c)  Padma murassa
  • (d)  Khilat

127. Who among the following social reformer started a society for the encouragement of widow remarriage in 1866 in Maharashtra?

  • (a)  Bal Gangadhar Tilak
  • (b)  Jyotirao Phule
  • (c)  Vishnushastri Pandit
  • (d)  Pandita Ramabai

128. Name the first major voluntary association representing primarily Indian landlord interests that was set-up in Calcutta in 1851?

  • (a)  British Indian Association
  • (b)  Landholder’s Society
  • (c)  Madras Native Association
  • (d)  Bombay Association

129. Who among the following introduced the Permanent Settlement of Bengal in 1793?

  • (a)  Lord Cornwallis
  • (b)  Lord Ripon
  • (c)  Robert Clive
  • (d)  John Adam

130. Name the rebel who fought against the British in the Battle of Chinhat in the course of the 1857 Revolt?

  • (a)  Ahmadullah Shah
  • (b)  Shah Mal
  • (c)  Mangal Pandey
  • (d)  Kunwar Singh

131. Who among the following are the two civil servants who assisted the Constituent Assembly in framing the Constitution of India?

  • (a)  BN Rau and KM Munshi
  • (b)  SN Mukherjee and Alladi Krishnaswamy Aiyar
  • (c)  BN Rau and SN Mukherjee
  • (d)  KM Munshi and Alladi Krishnaswamy Aiyar

132. Which member of ‘the Constituent Assembly proposed the resolution that the National Flag of India be a “horizontal tricolor of saffron, white and dark green in equal proportion”, with a wheel in navy, blue at the centre?

  • (a)  Jawaharlal Nehru
  • (b)  BR Ambedkar
  • (c)  Rajendra Prasad
  • (d)  Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel

133. Which of the following is/are not historical biography/biographies?

(1) Dipavamsa

(2) Harshacharita

(3) Vikramankadevacharita

(4) Prithvirajavijaya

Select the correct answer from the codes given below

  • (a)  Only 1
  • (b)  2 and 3
  • (c)  2, 3 and 4
  • (d)  All of these

134. Which of the following pairs are correctly matched?

Select the correct answer using the codes given below

  • (a)  1, 2 and 3
  • (b)  2 and 3
  • (c)  All of these
  • (d)  1 and 4

135. Which of the following clans are included in the Agnikula Rajputs?

(1) Pratiharas                   (2) Chaulukyas

(3) Paramaras                   (4) Chahamanas

Select the correct answer from the codes given below

  • (a)  1 and 3
  • (b)  1, 3 and 4
  • (c)  All of these
  • (d)  2 and 4

136. Who among the following was the author of Humayun Nama?

  • (a)  Roshanara Begum
  • (b)  Ruquaiya Sultan Begum
  • (c)  Gulbadan Begum
  • (d)  Gauhara Begum

137. Which one of the following about the Parliament of India is not correct?

  • (a)  The Parliament consists of the President, the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha.
  • (b)  There are no nominated members in the Lok Sabha.
  • (c)  The Rajya Sabha cannot be dissolved.
  • (d)  Some members of the Rajya Sabha are nominated by the President.

138. Which one of the following statements with regard to the Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) of India is not correct?

  • (a)  He is appointed by the President of India.
  • (b)  He can be removed from office in the same way as the judge of the Supreme Court of India.
  • (c)  The CAG is eligible for further office under the government of India after he has ceased to hold his office.
  • (d)  The salary of the CAG is charged upon the Consolidated Fund of India.

139. The Superintendence, direction and control of elections in India is vested in

  • (a)  The supreme Court of India
  • (b)  The Parliament of India
  • (c)  The Election Commission of India
  • (d)  The Chief Election Commissioner

140. Which of the following provision(s) of the Constitution of India became effective from November 26, 1949?

(1) Elections

(2) Citizenship

(3) Emergency provisions

(4) Appointment of the Judges

Select the correct answer using the codes given below

  • (a)  Only 1
  • (b)  1 and 2
  • (c)  1, 2 and 3
  • (d)  2 and 4

141. Which of the following statements regarding construction of Rohtang tunnel is not correct?

  • (a)  It is located at an altitude of 5000 feet.
  • (b)  It will provide all-year connectivity to Lahaul and Spiti Valley.
  • (c)  The tunnel is being built by the Border Roads Organization.
  • (d)  It will reduce the length of the Leh-Manali highway by approximately 50 km.

142. Who among the following recently became the first woman pilot in Indian Navy?

  • (a)  Astha Segal
  • (b)  Roopa A
  • (c)  Sakthi Maya S
  • (d)  Shubhangi Swaroop

143. Who among the following Indian did NOT hold the title of Miss World?

  • (a)  Reita Faria
  • (b)  Sushmita Sen
  • (c)  Diana Hayden
  • (d)  Yukta Mookhey

144. Which one of the following countries has failed to qualify for the first time in 60 years for the FIFA World Cup to be held in Russia in the year 2018

  • (a)  Mexico
  • (b)  Iran
  • (c)  Saudi Arabia
  • (d)  Italy

145. The Defence Technology and Trade Initiative (DTTI) is a forum for dialogue on defence partnership between India and

  • (a)  Russia
  • (b)  United State of America
  • (c)  Israel
  • (d)  France

146. As per the policy applicable in 2017, how much Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is permitted in the defence sector in India?

  • (a)  49% through the automatic route
  • (b)  26% through the government route
  • (c)  26% through the automatic route and beyond that up to 49% through the government route
  • (d)  75% through the automatic route

147. Which one of the following countries did not participate in the 21st edition of Exercise Malabar?

  • (a)  United States of America
  • (b)  Japan
  • (c)  India
  • (d)  Australia

148. Justice Dalveer Bhandari of India was recently re-elected to the International Court of Justice after Christopher Greenwood pulled out before 12th round of voting. Chrisopher Greenwood was a nominee of

  • (a)  Canada
  • (b)  Russia
  • (c)  Britain
  • (d)  the USA

149. In order to review the Income Tax Act, 1961 and to draft a new Direct Tax Law in consonance with economic needs of the country, the government of India in November, 2017 has constituted a Task Force. Who among the following is made the convenor of it?

  • (a)  Arvind Subramanian
  • (b)  Arbind Modi
  • (c)  Amitabh Kant
  • (d)  Dr. Bibek Debroy

150. The 5th Global Conference on Cyber Space (GCCS) was held in New Delhi in November, 2017. Which of the following statements about GCCS is/are correct?

(1) The 4th version of GCCS was held in London.

(2) The main theme of GCCS 2017 is ‘Cyber4All : A Secure and Inclusive Cyberspace for Sustainable Development’.

(3) ‘Bindu’ is the logo of GCCS 2017.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below

  • (a)  Only 1
  • (b)  Only 2
  • (c)  2 and 3
  • (d)  All of these